Karl Gebhardt

Karl Gebhardt (1897-1948) had a distinguished career as professor of sports medicine before the Second World War. He developed sports for the disabled at a specialised orthopaedic clinic at Hohenlychen and was President of the Red Cross in Germany. During the war, Gebhardt also acted as Heinrich Himmler’s personal physician and was responsible for medical experimentation on prisoners in the concentration camps at Auschwitz and Ravensbrück. In his capacity as SS consultant surgeon, he treated Reinhard Heydrich (a high ranking Nazi official, also known as ‘the Hangman’) after an attempt was made on his life. When Heydrich died, Gebhardt was accused of failing to treat him with sulphonamides. To prove his innocence he carried out a series of experiments on Ravensbrück concentration camp prisoners, breaking their legs and infecting them with various organisms in order to prove the worthlessness of the drugs in treating gas gangrene. He also attempted to transplant the limbs from camp victims to German soldiers wounded on the Russian front. He was tried after the war and executed for these crimes in 1948.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22184577/

The I.G. Farben trial in 1947

The I.G. Farben Trial, the sixth subsequent Nuremberg proceeding, was tried by the Military Tribunal VI, which had been created by the U.S. Military Government for Germany on August 8, 1947. An indictment was filed on May 3 naming twenty-four defendants, all in the IG Farben industrial concern, and listing five counts: the planning, preparation, initiation, and waging of wars of aggression and invasions of other countries; committing war crimes and crimes against humanity through the plunder and spoliation of public and private property in countries and territories that came under German occupation; committing war crimes and crimes against humanity through participating in the enslavement and deportation for slave labor of civilians from German-occupied territories and of German nationals; participation by defendants Christian Schneider, Heinrich Buetefisch, and Erich von der Heyde in the SS, a recently-declared criminal organization; and participation in a common plan or conspiracy to commit crimes against peace.

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/i-g-farben-trial-1947-1948

Mr Jones

År 1933 är den unge walesiska reportern Gareth Jones på mångas läppar efter ha lyckats få en intervju med Adolf Hitler. Inför sin nästa artikel nästlar han sig in i Sovjetunionen för att försöka lista ut hur kommuniststaten lyckats genomföra sin snabba modernisering och stora upprustning av armén. Ambitionen är att få en intervju med Josef Stalin men färden för istället Jones vidare till Ukraina. Under mardrömsliknande former blir han där vittne till hur Sovjets växande framgång bygger på att ryska soldater länsar Ukraina på alla sina grödor, med miljoner svältande människor som följd. Samtidigt är ryssarna Jones på spåren och de kommer göra allt i sin makt för att hindra den fasansfulla sanningen från att spridas.

https://www.svtplay.se/video/Kv1akVd/mr-jones

Zechariah

The prophet Zechariah is just one of over thirty men named Zechariah in the Old Testament. His name means “Yahweh has remembered,” which might also be a good summary of the prophetic work that bears his name. We know little about Zechariah personally except that he was a priest as well as a prophet and was a contemporary of Zerubbabel and the prophet Haggai.

Zechariah lived during the time of Judah’s restoration, when the exiles had returned from Babylon and were rebuilding the temple in Jerusalem, around 520 to 470 BC. Zechariah 1:1  introduces him as the son of Berekiah, the grandson of Iddo. However, Ezra 5:1 and 6:14 identify him as the son of Iddo. This is not a contradiction, as son can simply mean “descendant.”

According to Nehemiah 12:4, Zechariah’s grandfather Iddo returned with Zerubbabel from exile in Babylon. Nehemiah 12:16 lists Zechariah as the head of the priestly family of Iddo. His ministry was among those who returned from the exile and their descendants as they resettled the land. Zechariah calls them to repentance and spiritual renewal in a time when they seemed to be despairing, spiritually apathetic, and tempted to continue some of the sins of their forefathers before the exile. The prophecies in the book of Zechariah cover about two years’ time, but it appears that Zechariah continued to have a ministry among the people until the temple was rebuilt, even though no prophecies are recorded from that time period (Ezra 5:1-2).

The Old Testament gives no indication about how Zechariah might have died. However, in Matthew 23:34-36, Jesus mentions Zechariah in His condemnation of the first-century Jewish leaders: “I am sending you prophets and sages and teachers. Some of them you will kill and crucify; others you will flog in your synagogues and pursue from town to town. And so upon you will come all the righteous blood that has been shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah son of Berekiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar. Truly I tell you, all this will come on this generation.” If this is a reference to the prophet Zechariah, then we know how Zechariah died—he was murdered in the temple courtyard.

There were a couple of prominent men in the Bible named Zechariah (alternate spelling Zacharias or Zachariah). One was an Old Testament prophet who prophesied in the days of Haggai and who wrote the book of Zechariah (Ezra 5:1; Zechariah 1:1). This prophet is also mentioned by Jesus as having been murdered by the rebellious and disobedient Jews of his day (Matthew 23:35). The other prominent Zechariah was a priest, the father of John the Baptist (Luke 1:5).

Zechariah is actually the first person mentioned in connection with the Christmas story. The book of Luke records that Zechariah and his wife, Elizabeth, were righteous, God-honoring people who had no children and were well past childbearing years (Luke 1:6-7). Zechariah, as part of his priestly duties in the temple, was chosen to enter the Holy Place to burn incense before the Lord (verse 8). While he was ministering in the temple to the Lord, the angel Gabriel appeared to him and told him that he and Elizabeth had been chosen by God to have a son who would be the forerunner of the Messiah (verse 17). They were to consecrate their son as a servant of God and were to name him John.

Source:

https://www.gotquestions.org/prophet-Zechariah.html

Tantalum – resource of conflict

Tantalum is considered a conflict resource. Coltan, the industrial name for a columbite-tantalite mineral from which niobium and tantalum are extracted, can also be found in Central Afrika, which is why tantalum is being linked to warfare in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire).

According to an October 23, 2003 United Nations report, the smuggling and exportation of coltan has helped fuel the war in the Congo, a crisis that has resulted in approximately 5.4 million deaths since 1998 – making it the world’s deadliest documented conflict since World War two.

Ethical questions have been raised about responsible corporate behavior, human rights, and endangering wildlife, due to the exploitation of resources such as coltan in the armed conflict regions of the Congo Basin.

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports in its yearbook that this region produced a little less than 1% of the world’s tantalum output in 2002–2006, peaking at 10% in 2000 and 2008. USGS data published in January 2021 indicated that close to 40% of the world’s tantalum mine production came from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with another 18% coming from neighboring Rwanda and Burundi.

Tantal

Tantal (Ta) är ett metalliskt grundämne som upptäcktes år 1802 av den svenske kemisten Anders Ekeberg, det utgör ungefär 2 miljondelar av jordskorpans totala kemiska sammansättning. I naturen förekommer tantal framförallt i olika oxidmineral, ofta tillsammans med niob och andra metaller. Tantal klassas av Europeiska kommissionen som ett av fyra konfliktmineral eftersom dess utvinning är tätt sammanlänkad med väpnade konflikter i Kongo-Kinshasa.

Den största användningen för tantal är i tillverkning av elektroniska komponenter, framförallt kondensatorer och högeffektsresistorer. Tantal används för att skapa superlegeringar med hög smältpunkt, styrka och duktilitet (förmåga att deformeras utan att spricka), vilka används i jetmotorer, kärnreaktorer, värmeväxlare, kirurgiska instrument och implantat, med mera. Hög motståndskraft mot korrosiva vätskor gör att tantal kan användas till reaktionskärl och liknande inom kemiindustrin.

Fyndigheter och produktion

Globalt sett är Kongo-Kinshasa (33 procent), Rwanda (28 procent) och Brasilien (9 procent) de största producenterna och EU:s behov tillgodoses genom import från dessa länder. Större kända tillgångar finns även i Australien och Kanada. Metallen har aldrig brutits i Sverige, men kända mineraliseringar finns i Västernorrlands, Jämtlands, Gävleborgs och Stockholms län.

Silk road

Silk Road, also called Silk Route, ancient trade route, linking China with the West, that carried goods and ideas between the two great civilizations of Rome and China. Silk went westward, and wools, gold, and silver went east. China also received nestorian Christianity and Buddism (from India) via the Silk Road.

Digerdöden

Digerdöden i Sverige ägde rum 1350–1351, men är dåligt dokumenterad. Samtida källor bekräftar dess närvaro i Sverige, och det blev länge ett etablerat faktum att en stor del av landets befolkning utplånades medan den varade. Dödsantalet är okänt. Pesten återkom till Sverige, liksom övriga Europa, flera gånger fram till dess sista utbrott 1710.

Vad orsakar pest och hur sprids den?

Pest orsakas av bakterien Yersinia pestis. Flera olika gnagare fungerar som reservoar för bakterien. Sjukdomen förekommer nuförtiden i delar av Asien, Afrika och i Nord och Sydamerika. Bakterien sprids i första hand via råttor och deras loppor.

Pesten har under lång tid varit en av våra mest fruktade infektionssjukdomar och har under historien kallats bland annat för digerdöden och svarta döden.

Denna information gör inte anspråk på att vara fulltäckande eller ständigt uppdaterad utan syftar till att ge en överblick över smittsamma sjukdomar av betydelse för smittskyddsarbete.

Pest finns fortfarande i flera delar av världen, men ses nuförtiden inte i Sverige. Sjukdomen är en zoonos, det vill säga en sjukdom som kan överföras mellan djur och människa.

MORGONGÅVOBREV

Dokument som upprättades före vigseln och som fastställde den del av mannens egendom som skulle tillfalla kvinnan ifall hon var barnlös och blev änka. Morgongåvobrev förekom redan under medeltiden och avskaffades i Finland 1878.Morgongåvobrevet skulle stadfästas och protokollföras av allmän domstol.

Hur används ordet morgongåva?

  1. Miljöpartiets morgongåva till Håkan Juholt är inte nådig.
  2. Den första var en legendarisk teaterprofessor vid namn Freddy Wood som lät bygga huset i morgongåva till sin hustru.
  3. Men enligt iransk lag måste morgongåva betalas för att äktenskapet ska bli giltigt.
  4. Ytterligare en anledning kan ha varit att ett giftermål innebar en möjlig ekonomisk vinning i form av morgongåva och den lagstadgade tredjedelen av förvärvad egendom.
  5. Arvid använde Fållnäs som morgongåvatvå gånger och vid det andra giftet var Fållnäs egentligen hans barns möderne.